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Greensboro Sit-ins - Launch of a Civil Rights Movement

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1819

The first route of the Underground Railroad, a network of trails and hiding places that led fleeing slaves to the North, begins in a cave near a creek on what is now the Guilford College campus. A slave from Guilford County, John Dimrey, is the first to follow the Underground Railroad to freedom.

1820

Benjamin Benson, a slave, wins his freedom in Guilford County Superior Court.

1829

Greensboro’s first census includes 369 white residents, 101 slaves and 26 free blacks.

1865

13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States abolishes slavery.

1868

14th Amendment’s equal protection clause requires states to provide equal protection under the law to all people.

Late 1860s

Greensboro’s first suburb, called Warnersville, is developed near Ashe Street. Ezell Blair Jr. (now Jibreel Khazan), a future sit-in participant, will grow up in this community.

1870

15th Amendment guarantees that the right to vote could not be denied based on “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”

1873

Bennett College for black women opens.

March 1, 1875

President Ulysses S. Grant signs the Civil Rights Act. The U.S. Supreme Court declares it unconstitutional in 1883.

1893

Agricultural and Mechanical College (now N.C. A&T) opens.

1905

The Niagara Movement is founded and is the forerunner of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

January 1909

First meeting of the NAACP is held in New York.

July 1917

On July 2, violence erupts in East St. Louis, Ill., stemming specifically from the employment of black workers in a factory holding government contracts.

On July 28, the NAACP stages a silent parade down Fifth Avenue in New York City, protesting the riot and other acts of violence toward black Americans.

1919

NAACP membership reaches about 90,000 with more than 300 local branches.

1920

19th Amendment gives women the right to vote.

1942

Congress of Racial Equality, an interracial American organization, is established to improve race relations and end discriminatory policies through direct-action projects. One of its first activities is a sit-in at a coffee shop in Chicago for the purpose of protesting segregation in public settings.

1948

President Harry Truman decides to end segregation in the armed forces and the civil service through administrative action (executive order) rather than through legislation.

By October 1953, the Army announces that 95 percent of African American soldiers are serving in integrated units.

1950s

Bennett College sociology professor Edward Edmonds leads delegations of parents to the school board to protest inferior educational facilities. He also demands the whites-only swimming pool at Lindley Park be opened to blacks.

Dr. George Simkins, a Greensboro dentist, begins a successful drive to desegregate Greensboro’s city-owned golf courses.

1951

William Hampton becomes the first African American elected to the Greensboro City Council.

May 1954

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kan., is decided. The Supreme Court declares segregated schools are inherently unequal and therefore unconstitutional.

1955

The Supreme Court rules that blacks need not be immediately admitted to public schools on a racially nondiscriminatory basis but that school boards should eliminate segregation “with all deliberate speed.” In the South, there is massive resistance to the desegregation of schools.

Dec. 1, 1955

Rosa Parks refuses to change seats on a Montgomery, Ala., bus, sparking a yearlong bus boycott spearheaded by Martin Luther King Jr.

Nov. 13, 1956

The U.S. Supreme Court outlaws bus segregation.

Sept. 3, 1957

Greensboro becomes the first city in the Southeast to desegregate its all-white public schools when five black children enroll at Gillespie Park School.

The children endure heckling, but there is no violence. The next day, Greensboro Senior High is integrated when former Dudley student Josephine Boyd transfers.

Sept. 9, 1957

President Dwight Eisenhower signs the Civil Rights Act of 1957, the first civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. There had been sit-downs — or sit-ins, as they would later be called — in at least 16 Southern cities.

Eisenhower sends U.S. Army troops to Little Rock, Ark., to enforce desegregation of schools.

Feb. 1, 1960

Ezell Blair Jr. (now Jibreel Khazan), David Richmond, Joseph McNeil and Franklin McCain launch the Greensboro sit-ins. In just two months, the sit-in movement spreads to 54 cities in nine states.

After passing by Ralph Johns’ store on Market Street, the four A&T students enter the Elm Street Woolworth at 4 p.m., purchasing school supplies and other items. They then approach the lunch counter and order coffee at 4:30 p.m. They are refused service. The four remain in their seats until closing at 5:30 p.m.

Feb. 6, 1960

More than 500 students jam the Woolworth and Kress stores and the sidewalks in downtown Greensboro.

Feb. 11, 1960

Students participate in sit-ins across the state. Twenty-six William Penn High School students sit at the Woolworth lunch counter on South Main Street in High Point.

July 25, 1960

F.W. Woolworth agrees to integrate its Greensboro store; four black Woolworth employees — Geneva Tisdale, Susie Morrison, Anetha Jones and Charles Best — are the first to be served.

Aug. 28, 1963

Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his historic “I Have a Dream” speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.

1964

24th Amendment prohibits Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.

Martin Luther King Jr., at age 35, receives the Nobel Peace Prize. He gives the prize money to the furtherance of the civil rights movement.

Feb. 21, 1965

Malcolm X is assassinated while giving a speech in New York City.

Aug. 6, 1965

The Voting Rights Bill becomes law, nullifying local laws and practices that prevent minorities from voting.

May 1-Oct. 1, 1967

In the worst summer for racial disturbances in U.S. history, more than 40 riots and 100 other disturbances occur.

June 13, 1967

President Johnson appoints Thurgood Marshall to the Supreme Court. He is the first African American on the court.

1968

Henry Frye becomes the first black person in the 20th century to serve in the N.C. House of Representatives.

Elreta Alexander-Ralston becomes the country’s first African American woman to be elected a District Court judge.

April 4, 1968

Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated while standing on the balcony of his motel room in Memphis, Tenn., where he was to lead a protest march in sympathy with striking garbage workers of that city.

April 11, 1968

President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (Fair Housing Act). The 1968 act expands on previous acts and prohibits discrimination concerning the sale, rental and financing of housing based on race, religion or national origin.

May 6, 1969

Howard Lee is elected mayor of Chapel Hill. He is the first black mayor in a predominantly white city, serving until 1975. (In 2003, Lee becomes the first black chairman of the State Board of Education.)

Oct. 29, 1969

The Supreme Court (Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education) says segregation must end at once.

Feb. 1, 1980

Twentieth reunion of the Greensboro Four at Woolworth. They are served by company Vice President Aubrey C. Lewis.

State historical marker is unveiled at North Elm Street and West Friendly Avenue.

1983

Former state Sen. Henry E. Frye is sworn in as associate justice of the N.C. Supreme Court, becoming the first black justice in the court’s 164-year history.

Aug. 10, 1989

Army Gen. Colin L. Powell becomes the first black chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest military post in the nation.

1993

Melvin “Skip” Alston and Rep. Earl Jones found Sit-in Movement Inc. to renovate and reopen the downtown Woolworth department store as a civil rights museum.

1995

An 8-foot section of the Woolworth counter and four stools go on permanent display at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History.

November 2007

Yvonne Johnson is the first African American elected mayor of Greensboro.

November 2008

Barack Obama is elected president of the United States.

Feb. 1, 2010

The opening of the International Civil Rights Center & Museum marks the 50th anniversary of the Greensboro Sit-Ins.

Sources

News & Record archive, Britannica Encyclopedia, Truman Library, UNCG Civil Rights Greensboro timeline, Yale School of Education, NAACP

If you would like to make a monetary contribution to the The International Civil Rights Center & Museum, promoting the cause of civil rights championed by the A&T Four and countless others, visit their website.
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